Thursday, April 6, 2017

Husband-Killing Syndicates

HUSBAND-KILLING SYNDICATES: The vast majority of victims of these conspiracies were husbands, yet some were wives or other family members, including children.

Among the cases listed below you will find news reports with such headlines as “Husband Poisoning by Wholesale” (1882), “Ten Husband Poisoners” (1890), “A New Business; Husband Poisoning on the Scale of a Commercial Enterprise” (1891), “Killing Off Husbands” (1895), “Epidemic of Poisoning in Hungary; Eighteen Men Killed” (1901), “Women Formed Club to Murder Husbands” (1903), “Woman Kills 300 At Wives’ Behest” (1909), “Exterminating Husbands” (1911), “Wanted to Be Widows So They Hanged Their Husbands” (1933), “Used Fly Paper to Kill Husbands” (1935), “How Wives Gained Power by Mass Murder of Husbands” (1937).

In the following collection are 39 cases which took place in eastern Europe (Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia) between 1882 and 1939.

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Leader: La Toffania (or, Toffania, Tofana, Toffana); teacher Hieronyma Spara.
Method: liquid poison sold in vials.
Victims: large numbers; mostly husbands.

1658: ITALY – Rome
Leaders: Hyeronyma Spara, Gratiosa, La Toffania; Spara, Gratiosa & 12 other hanged in 1659
Method: liquid poison called "Tifana water."
Victims: over 700.

Leader: Giovanna Bonanno; executed Jul. 30, 1789.
Method: poison, a mixture of spring water, white wine and arsenic, intended to kill lice, purchased from apothecary then resold; 3 stages of dosage.
Victims: 6 confirmed (4 men, 2 women), many more suspected.

60 women hanged for poisoning husbands with arsenic.
Note: The source may be in error, mistakenly referring to the cases of the 1880s yet referring to the 1850s.

1868: FRANCE - Marseilles
Leader: Monsieur Joye, herbalist.
Method : arsenic.
Victims : 3 husbands whose wives purchased poison from Joye.
Venue: “a poisoning party.”
Perpetrators: 4 wives.
Victims: 4 husbands.
Method: “poison.”

Leaders: Thekla Popov, active more than two years (1880-1882), Anna Minity, Sophia Ivanovitch; over 100 women implicated; court cases continued into at least 1889.
Method: bottles of "red liquid poison" priced at 50-100 florins.
Victims: over 100.

Leader: Kathi Lyukas (or "Kate Nagy"), murder two of her own husbands; Lyukas confessed to 6 other murders (20 other deaths suspected to be caused by her); Lyukas was hanged Nov. 30, 1882.
Method: arsenic baked into little cakes.
Victims: convicted of 26 murders.

Leader: Persa Czirin; considered the poison supplier; released for lack of evidence.
Method: poison.
Victims: Multiple husbands of women who acquired poison from Czirin.
Leader: An “old woman” poison-seller & racketeer.
Method: poison (unidentified as of yet).
Victims: 7 men lured into marriage to be murdered for their assets.

1889: SERBIA ("Hungary") - Erdevik, District of Smyrna (Syrmia), Bingula & the Mitrovitz district (Austro-Hungarian Empire, Serbia)
Leader: Makrena Stankovic; deaths occurred in 1880, 1883, 1884, 1884, 1885, 1886 and 1888
Accomplice: Milika Plavsic, aided 2 husband-killers.
Method: Poisoned with arsenic derived from fly-paper cooked into christening cakes served on christening day to the father; elsewhere reported as poisonous spiders in dumplings.
Victims: more than 10.

1890: SERBIA ("HUNGARY") – Mitrovitz (Sremska Mitrovica)
Leader: Esther Sarac (“witch or herbalist”); 10 women arrested.
Method: arsenic extracted from flypaper.
Victims: 60 estimated, over a period of 10 years.

1891: SERBIA {"HUNGARY") - Szenttamas (Szent Tamas, Srbobran)
Leaders: Frau Kernaez, Frau Kurjakow, Frau Pivnicski (Rivnicski).
Method: arsenic.
Victims: 10.

1893: :HUNGARY – Vezprimer Comitat, Ortschaft Szent-Gal (Szentgál), Szent-Hat, Hungary
Leader: Frau Kajdi.
Method: poison.
Victims: 3 husbands.
Leader: Maria Szalay-Japes.
Method: Arsenic.
Victims: 6 (husbands).

1895: ROMANIA ("HUNGARY") – Pecica ("Peceska," "Pecs")
Leader: Maria Hevesy; was paid 100 florins for arranging murder.
Method: Ex-con hired to carry out murders.
Victims: multiple married men.

1897: HUNGARY – Hodmozoe (Hod-Moyo-Vasarheky; Hódmezővásárhely)
Leader: Mari Azalai Jager.
Accomplices: "a band of poisoners" 3 men & 2 women (including Gulyas Kis-Samuel, male).
Method: Three poisons, belladonna, arsenic and chloride of mercury.
Jul. 24, 1897, Budapest: Trial of 12 women & 2 men; 4 sentenced to death; 1 to life in prison (man who killed his mother); 1 to 6 years in prison
Victims: estimated at over 100.

Leaders: George Korin, apothecary, ringleader, and Dr. Johann Mayer, village physician.
Perpetrators: Maria Nikodem (murdered 2 husbands); Lisa Triku (murdered 4 husbands).
Method: arsenic.
Victims: 14.

1900: HUNGARY Liget (“Zlifet") Baranya county.
Leader: unknown at present.
Method: arsenic taken from face rouge, placed in drink.
Victims: 6 husbands.
Leader: Nikola Bettuz (seeress).
Method: secret poison (Bettuz refused to disclose its composition).
Leader: Petar the Magician.
Method: poisoned brandy.
Leader: Coroner Hanusch, formed a "club" of wives who wished their husbands dead.
Method: poison supplied by the coroner, who would certify victim died of heart disease.
Victims: at least 6 husbands.

1905: HUNGARY – Czongrad (Csongrad)
Leaders: Female poison-maker and a group of women (names currently unavailable).
Method: poison.
Victims: husbands and wives, including a couple who each bought poison to murder one another.

1905: HUNGARY – Hodmezo-Vasarhely (Hod-Moyo-Vasarheky; Hódmezővásárhely)
Leader: Balapa (reputed witch).
Customers: Women who wished to kill husbands or infants.
Method: poison.
Victims: 6 men; 20 infants.

Leader: Frau Sivacky.
Method: poison.
Victims: 9 husbands critically ill; other deaths; 12 women arrested.

1906: ROMANIA ("HUNGARY") – Knez (Knecz, Kneez),Temeczvar (Timișoara, Temesvár)
Merthod: arsenic, sold for $4.50 per portion.
Victims: 25 bodies exhumed; Catherine Biber murdered 3; an unnamed widow murdered 4 husbands consecutively.

Leader: Frau Szari
Merthod: poisonous black henbane seeds.
Victims: Mr. Szari, many others.

1909: UKRAINE ("RUSSIA") Samara
Leader: Katharina Popova (Popowa); claimed all victims were husbands who had abused their wives.
Method: poison in food or drink placed there directly by Madame Popova.
Victims: 50 ("300" in some sources), all husbands.

1911: HUNGARY – Szegedin (Szeged)
Leader: Maria Gerzan, professional nurse.
Accomplice: Levai, murdered husband.
Method: poison, claimed to be for killing vegetable parasites.
Victims: All victims were married men.

1912: ROMANIA ("HUNGARY") – Lipova, "Lippa," Arad county)
Leader: Johanna Kapruczan, murdered her first 4 husbands, 5th alive at time of arrest; 6 other women arrested.
Method: not yet ascertained.
Number of victims: 9 men (including leader’s 4 husbands).

1926: SERBIA {"JUGOSLAVIA") – Nagy Kikinda (Kikinda)
The “St. Lucretia Club,” a charitable organization was dedicated to sharing information about husband-murdering techniques.
Leader: Maria Vukosava Jovanovic (Maria Vukitch).
Method: poison.
Victims:7 husbands.

1927: RUSSIA – Novay Ladoga ("Navoia")
Leader: Sophie Safarin ("Safarine").
Method: poison.
Victims: 58 husbands (entire population of husbands).

1929: SERBIA ("JUGOSLAVIA") – Vladimirovac; Panchova, Banat ("Banyat") region
Leader: Anuja de Poshtonja (Anna Pistova), "The Witch of Vladimirovac", AKA: Anyuka Dee, the “Banat Witch,” Baba Anujka.
Method: "vegetable poisoning"; arsenic.
Perpatrators: includes Stana Ludushka (3 victims: 2 husbands; one uncle).
Victims: 13, all husbands (50 in one account); 50 year career probably involved scores more.
Leaders: Júlia Fazekas (murdered 2 of her own husbands), Christine Chordas, (“Czordas”), and Susi Oláh (murdered 2 of her own husbands).
Method: arsenic extracted from fly-paper, rat poison containing arsenic, toadstools.
Victims: estimates vary from 30 to 100.
13 serial killers: Maria Aszendi (3 murders), Christine Chordas (3 murders), Julia Dari (3 murders), Julia Fazekas (scores of murders), Juliana Foeldvary (3 murders), Maria Kardos (3 murders), Julianne Lipka (scores of murders), Suzi Olah (scores of murders), Mrs. Louis Oser (or, "Cser," 3 murders), Frau Palinka (7 murders), Julia Sijj (7 murders), Esther Szabo (multiple murders, including 2 family members), Maria Varga (3 murders).
Leader: Name not discovered as yet.
Arrests: 5 women arrested, 1 committed suicide (Frau Hegedüs).
Method: Poison.
Leader: Viktoria Stanke; poisoned 3: husband, Julie Talinik, Mr. Talinik.
Arrested: Repisky (farmer), poisoned father in 1928; Victoria Szenesi, arrested.
Method: poison.
Victims: 6 known, others suspected to be discovered upon investigation.
Leader: Viktoria Foedi Rieger, nicknamed “Smoking Peter.” She was a cross-dresser who passed as a man; "The Devil Woman of Pista."
Method: hanging arranged to simulate suicide.
Victims: 22 suspected.

Leaders: Florica Duma & Ilona Kovacs.
Method: Arsenic extracted from fly-paper.
Victims: 6 persons, men and women.

Serbian: Соиа Гјуркиц (Sojka Gjurkic).
Method: Poison potions.
Victims: Multiple husbands.

1935: HUNGARY – Debreczen
Leader: Julianne Nagy.
Method: arsenic extracted from boiled fly-paper.
Victims: at least 11.

1939: USA – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Active: 1932-1938; “Arsenic Incorporated.”
Sentencing: 2 executed; 12 life terms; 7 lesser sentences.
Leaders: Morris (Evil Eye) Bolber, Paul Petrillo, Herman Petrillo, Horace D. Perlman.
Operatives: Mrs. Rose Carina, Mrs. Carina Favato, Mrs. Josephine Sadita
Method: arsenic
Victims: over 100

Leaders: Mr. & Mrs. Petcovic.
Method: poison.
Perpetrators: 16 tried.
Victims: mostly men (husbands, fathers, nephew).

1995: USA – San Francisco & New York City
Identification: The Tene-Bimbo Gypsy Clan
Leader: Mary Tene Steiner.
Others: Sylvia Mitchell (New York City), Angela Tene Bufford (San Francisco).
Victims: 9 elderly men.
Method: digitalis poisoning (causing heart attack).

2011: COLOMBIA Medellin
“The Black Widow Gang.”
Leader: José Adrián Henao Giraldo.
Members: Luz Elena Carvajal Cataño, Suleyma Giraldo de Zapata, Emilse Yulima Emilsen Rojas Castaño, Oliveryen Hincapie López.
Method: includes drowning.
Victims: 3 confirmed, 5 under investigation.



Murderers: Rose Veres (from Sarud, Hungary), "THe Witch of Medina Street," and son, William.
Related case: In Detroit Michigan in a neighborhood populated by immigrants from Sarud, Hungary, a woman conducted, along with her son, an insurance murder racket with boarders as her victims. Though she was later released from prison on appeal, there is little doubt she was guilty of the crimes she was originally convicted of.



A note on names: It should be note that names of persons and places from there regions are spelled in numerous different ways since a great many ethnicities resided these and used a great variety of languages. For example, Serbian was spoken in Serbia, but German was the official language of the ruling empire while the following other languages being spoken there include Albanian, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovak, Rusyn, Croatian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Romani, Czech, Bosnian, Vlach, Bunjevac, Macedonian, Montenegrin.

Further, English language transliterations of these names use many different spellings for the same name and vary in their choice of which original language form as the basis for their transliteration. In short, working with English language sources is extremely messy and confusing work.




Important article on Hungarian poison syndicates:

Jánoki Dávid, “Arsenic norms, collective secret, and double roles during the interrogations” (A történelem kérdései; Az írás, amint érvényét veszti, a Recenziók menüpontban található linken elérhető lesz.), Amazing History (website) 2012. November 23., Vác, Hungary


Explanations for the Hungarian murder syndicates that are commonly found are based on theories that are now being demonstrated to be faulty. Thus we must resist interpreting the phenomenon of the various Eastern European murder syndicates – with all their individual differences and complexities – through the simpleminded theories and claims that have been put forth in the standard literature thus far. 

An effort is now being made to take an objective look at the family in Eastern Europe without being hampered by the constraints of old-fashioned “patriarchy” theories and “social constructionist” reductionism, as is indicated by a recent call for papers by The Hungarian Historical Review. Here is an excerpt from that call for papers: 

“Historians who studied personal narrative sources that had survived in large numbers (such as correspondences, diaries, and memoirs) fervently disputed the Ariés-Hajnal-Stone thesis, according to which given the extended nature of the family, the role of emotional bonds in family life was negligible in Eastern Europe. The opponents of the thesis argue, however, that behind the image of patriarchal family life that emerges from the wealth of literature on matrimonial and marital counseling, one finds innumerable everyday gestures expressive of loving, amicable, and supportive relationships between spouses.” 

[Sándor Horváth, Call for journal articles – “The History of Family, Marriage and Divorce in Eastern Europe,” The Hungarian Historical Review, 2013]


Some motives for murder among the Eastern European murder syndicates::

1886 – Persa Czirin (professional poisoner) – [A] wholesale epidemic of poisoning had broken out among the women of the place who administered arsenic to their husbands whenever they wanted to marry somebody else. The first of the trials came on at Panosova recently, and ended with the conviction of a young pleasant woman, Draga Radovancey, who was sentenced to be hanged. An old peasant woman, Persa Czirin, who supplied the poison, was released for want of sufficient evidence. [“Wholesale Poisoning of Husbands.” The Southland Times (Invercarghill, Southland, N. Z.), Jun. 14, 1886, p. 4]

1889 – Thekla Popov (professional poisoner) – [Serial poisoner] Thekla Popov’s clients were, however, not always married women. Sometimes she had dealing with young girls who quarrelled with their sweethearts, and who, from jealousy or rage, had determined to kill them. [“Secret Poisoning. - Awful Crimes Of Borgias Recalled By Hungary’s Horror.  Murderous Nostrums Of Old. - Terrible Women Who Divorced Themselves By Deadly Potions. - The Evil Worked By Fortune Tellers.” Pittsburgh Post (Pa.), Dec. 14, 1889. p. 12]

1889 – Draga Kukin – Amongst other things he overheard was Kukin’s widow [Draga Kukin] saying to her accomplice, “Well, I am young and pretty. He was old and ugly. Why should he not die?” [“Secret Poisoning. - Awful Crimes Of Borgias Recalled By Hungary’s Horror.  Murderous Nostrums Of Old. - Terrible Women Who Divorced Themselves By Deadly Potions. - The Evil Worked By Fortune Tellers.” Pittsburgh Post (Pa.), Dec. 14, 1889. p. 12]

1897 –  Marie Jager (Azalai Jager Mari) (professional poisoner)  – It has transpired that the woman was much sought after, because when children were unwelcome they lived but a little while when Azalai Jager Mari was called in attendance. How many infants she destroyed it is impossible to guess. [“A Woman Who Has Poisoned More Than 100 People,” The World (New York, N.Y.), Jul. 11, 1897, p. 29]

1900 – Nikola Bettuz (professional poisoner)  – In some instances it was found that the object of the women was to obtain the insurance on the lives of their husbands. [“Slay Their Husbands - In Hungary Wives Tired of  Their Spouses Kill Them by Using a Mysterious Poison.” (Buda-Pesth Cor. Chicago Chronicle.) Fort Wayne Sentinel (In.), Oct. 20, 1900, p. 1]

1901 – Kissoda, Romania[Note: not just husbands, but “lovers” as well] Instances in which wives rid themselves of inconvenient husbands and girls did away with lovers whom they no longer wanted increased there appallingly.  [“Epidemic Of Poisoning In Hungary. - Eighteen Men Killed.” The Capricornian (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia), Jan. 12, 1901, p. 38]

1907 – Julia Wunicsitch – Julia Wuicsitch poisoned her husband because he could not buy her a new dress. [“Town Poisoned - And Wiped Out of Existence by Modern Lucretia Borgia. - Fair Young Fiend - Poisoned Her Rich Old Husband So She Could Marry a Young Lawyer, Whom She Also Poisoned. - Then With Another Woman She Went Into the Wholesale Poisoning Business.” The Manning Times (S. C.), Mar. 20, 1907, p. 6]

1907 – Marthas Petromany (professional poisoner)  – She married a wealthy farmer some five years ago solely on account of his possessions. A young man of talents and good prospects who was the leading local lawyer became her ardent admirer. Mme. Petrubany’s highest desire was to see her old husband out of the way to marry the lawyer and combine his superior social station and the old man’s property. [“Town Poisoned - And Wiped Out of Existence by Modern Lucretia Borgia. - Fair Young Fiend - Poisoned Her Rich Old Husband So She Could Marry a Young Lawyer, Whom She Also Poisoned. Then With Another Woman She Went Into the Wholesale Poisoning Business.” The Manning Times (S. C.), Mar. 20, 1907, p. 6]

1929 – Anyuka, Dee (AKA Anna Pistova, etc.) – A murder trial has begun at Panchova, Jugo-Slavia, where 93-year-old Anyuka, Dee is charged with having murdered more than fifty men. She is known throughout the district as the “Banat Witch.” Legends throw a veil of mystery around her lonely life, and as the wives of wealthy farmers liked to go to her for help in cases of illness and also to consult her on other difficulties, she drew a large income, which enabled her to lead a life of comfort. Recently it was said that Anyuka Dee, in addition to saving lives with herbs, also destroyed them with arsenic if she were paid to do so. [“A Jugo-Slavian ‘Witch’ - Faces Murder Trial,” The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia), Aug. 12, 1929, p. 17]

1929 – Suzie Olah (professional poisoner)  – Not wishing to risk another trial [for performing abortions], Aunt Suzie apparently decided to supplement her earnings in a new fashion. She began a series of child poisonings. There would be a discreet dosing, a little funeral, a tiny grave – and a mouth less to feed. Aunt Suzie worked exclusively with arsenic extracted from flypaper. It seemed effective. She decided to enlarge her sphere. She found wives who had grown tired of their husbands, children who coveted the property of their elders, mothers with ailing sons. Aunt Suzie would whisper that she knew a way. [John MacCormac, “Murder By Wholesale: A Tale From Hungary,” New York Times (N.Y.), Mar 16, 1930, p. XX3]

1929 – Maria Kardos – After marrying and divorcing two husbands she found herself at the age of forty with a 23-year-old son, whose health had made him a burden. Moreover, she had fast taken a young lover and did not wish to have this constant reminder of her own age. She consulted Aunt Suzie. The first dose of arsenic only made the boy ill. One fine Autumn day she had his bed moved outside in the courtyard. “I gave him some more poison in his medicine,” she told the police. “And then, suddenly, I remembered how beautifully my boy used to sing in church and I thought I would like to hear him once more. So I said: ‘Sing, my boy. Sing me my favorite song.’ He sang it in his lovely, clear voice.” The song ended in agony. The poison had done its work. [John MacCormac, “Murder By Wholesale: A Tale From Hungary,” New York Times (N.Y.), Mar 16, 1930, p. XX3]

1935 – Julianna Nagy (professional poisoner)  – They all got their wish, dying from her food. The old maid induced the old man to marry her by the simple process of threatening to resign as cook. But there were five children to inherit which would not leave much for the widow in case something should happen to Nagy. Therefore Julianna bought more fly-paper with which she made little angels, one after the other of all the five children.









Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Frau Kajdi, Serial Killer for Hire – Hungary, 1893

FULL TEXT (translated from German): The village of Szent-Hat in the district of Szczecin has enjoyed a sad reputation for years. There the women murder their spouses, if they no longer like them, by mixing poison into their drink. The head of these poisoners is a certain Kajdi, in her fifties, who has already buried three men and lives with the fourth in a wild marriage.

In addition to this Kajdi, three other women are suspected of poisoning their husband; These have now been detained by the gendarmes Szantner and Nagy. One of the detainees, 22-year-old widow Tamar, told Kajdi that she had sought and received poison from her. In the meantime, she also dispensed the poison on credit and in exchange for cottage cheese and cream.

The poison she prepared from this root - the mega-man boasted - was such that his doctor could trace his trail in the poisoned body. She needed three or four such portions as a "serving", these doses, added to the coffees or beer, enough to be tested on a dog before.
Tamar, the young widow, confessed that the poison was intended for her father and that her husband had accidentally drunk it, soon after which he died in great pain. – The poisoners were taken to Beszprim.

[“The Poison-mixer of Szent-Hat.” (Die Giftmischerinen von Szent-Hat.) Neuigkeits Welt-Blatt (Vienna, Austria), 28. Juli. 1893. p. 4]


FULL TEXT: Die Ortschaft Szent-Hat im Beszprimer Komitat geniesst schon seit Jahren einen traurigen Ruf. Dort morden die Weiber ihre Ehegatten, wenn ihremn diese nicht mehr gefallen, indem sie ihnen Gift ins Getränk mischen. Das Haupt dieser Giftmischerinnen ist eine gewisss Kajdi, eine Fünftzigerin, die schon drei Männer begraben hat und mit dem vierten in wilder Ehe lebt.
Ausser dieser Kajdi find noch drei Frauen des Giftmordes an ihren Gatten verdächtigt; diese find nun von den Gendarmen Szantner und Nagy in Haft genommen worden. Einer der Festgenommenen, der 22jährigen Witwe Tamar, sagte es die Kajdi ins Gesicht, dass sie von ihr Gift begehrt und erhalten habe. Minderbemittelten habe sie das Gift auch für gute Worte und Spenden an Topfen und Rahm hintangegeben.

Das Gift, das sie aus dieser Wurzel bereite – so rühmte sich die Megäre – sei ein solches, dass sein Arzt dessen Spur im vergifteten Leibe aussinden könne. Zu einer “Portion” brauchte sie drei bis vier solcher Zwiebeln, diese Dosie, in den Koffe oder ins Bier gegeben, genüge für zuvor immer an einem Hunde erprobt. Die junge Witwe Tamar gestand, dass die das Gift ihren einigen Vater bestimmt hatte und dass es zufällig ihr Mann weggetrunken hatte, der denn auch bald darauf unter grossen Schmerzen starb. –Die Giftmischerinnen wurden nach Beszprim eingeliefert.

[Die Giftmischerinen von Szent-Hat. Neuigkeits Welt-Blatt (Vienna, Austria), 28. Juli. 1893. p. 4]



For more than two dozen similar cases, dating from 1658 to 2011, see the summary list with links see: The Husband-Killing Syndicates


Maria Szalay-Japes, Serial Killer for Hire – Hungary, 1895

FULL TEXT (translated from German): Budapest, Oct. 30 (poisoners.) In Hodmezö-Vasarhely, six murders committed by poisoning have been uncovered. The corpses of the poisoned were dug out during a careful judicial investigation. The women were given the poison by a certain Maria Szalay-Japes, who gave each of them five white powders – probably arsenic – for the payment of 100 florins.

[“Poison-mixer” (Giftmischerinnen.) Feldkircher Zeitung (Feldkirch, Austria) 2. November 1895, p. 3]


FULL TEXT: Budapest, 30. Okt. (Giftmischerinnen.) In Hodmezö-Vasarhely sind sechs durch Vergiftung erfolgte Morde ausgedecktworden. Die Leichen der Vergifteten wurden behuss gerichtlicher Untersuchung ausgegraben. Das Gift haben die Weiber von einer gewissen Maria Szalay-Japes erhalten, die jeder von ihnen fünf weisse Pulver – wahrscheinlich Arsenik– für die Entlohnung von 100 fl. Überegab.

[Giftmischerinnen. Feldkircher Zeitung (Feldkirch, Austria) 2. November 1895, p. 3]



For more than two dozen similar cases, dating from 1658 to 2011, see the summary list with links see: The Husband-Killing Syndicates