Wednesday, June 18, 2014

The World's First Men's Rights Organization (with a comprehensive men's issues agenda) - 1926-1938, Vienna

NOTE: There is a great deal of information from German language sources that is to be added to this post. Most important to note is the error made by English language sources regarding the name Liga für Menschenrechte: it is incorrect. That name belonged to an organization -- founded in the same city in the same year --  for “human rights” (not involved with the conflict between the sexes, but rather advocating international peace)  rather than “men’s rights” group. The correct name is Der Bund für Männerrechte, founded in Vienna in March 1926 by Sigurd Höberth von Schwarzthal (born 1880, Odessa; died August 1938) and Leopold Kornblüh. Activities of the founders extended at least to the year 1935. There was not just one, but several publications published by the two men following the schism. 

The word “Männerrechtler” is roughly the equivalent of “men’s rights activist,” and has been found in publications in the late 1800s and the decades preceding the 1926 founding of Der Bund für Männerrechte.

The world’s first men’s rights organization? Technically this is not accurate. An organization formed in 1898 in the United States (Atlanta, Georgia) has been identified. Its inspiration and continued focus was to resist a proposed “bachelor’s tax." Its ethos, of bachelorhood, closely resembles today’s “Men Going Their Own Way” movement (MGTOW). Yet Der Bund deserves credit as the first organization known to be established with a comprehensive program designed to address the full range of men’s issues. The founding of Der Bund für Männerrechte is, however, the first men’s rights organization with a comprehensive mandate, addressing a wide range of men’s issues rather than having its focus on a single one (such as alimony or a particular piece of legislation). The ambition and comprehensiveness is attested to by the fact that Der Bund issued a ten-point “covenant” on  March 2, 1926, stating its aims and covering a wide range of  “men’s issues.”

The organization broke into two factions in January 1927. The cause was Hoebert’s founding in December 1926  of an additional organization which he conceived as complementary to the aims of Der Bund. It was called Themisverband [Themis from Greek mythology – Themis is said to have preceded Apollo in giving oracular responses at Delphi. She was the daughter of Cœlus and Terra, and was the first to instruct men to ask of the Gods that which was lawful and right, whence she took the name of Themis, which signifies in Greek, ‘that which is just and right.’] The aim of this second association was “to fight all injustice, irrespective of whether it was committed against men or women.” The consequence of this decision to associate himself with women's issues was the resignation of Kornblüh, who in January 1927 formed Justitia Verein für Männer und Familienrecht, which was restricted to male membership. His view was that the aims of Der Bund and an organization that addressed the concerns of both sexes was irreconcilable. The Bund having collapsed, Höberth regrouped by forming a new organization, Aequitas Weltbund für Männerrechte, which would be open to both sexes.

Leopold Kornblüh (48, Jewish bachelor), along with a German railway official, Karl Knierling (36) and a Federal Railways pensioner, Alfred Porzer (52, Catholic, divorced) formed the association "Justice Federation for Family law reform." The group set up "Divorce counseling center" one in which men every Monday between 8 pm and 10 pm (20:00 and 22:00), which took place at their headquarters at Gumpendorferstraße 6, in Vienna’s 6th District.

[See Chronology at end of this post]


Wikipedia’s Ministry of Guessing Make a Pronouncement

It is instructive to look at the idiotic dialog among the home-baked scholars of Wikipedia as they go about guessing, speculating and wondering about Sigurd Hoeberth’s status as a “real person” before they decide to delete the Wikipedia entry about him on April 7, 2015. The consensus-driven geniuses apparently never thought of searching Höberth (the non-anglicized spelling) which produces the full text to a dissertation describing his life and activities. Scores of major US newspapers featuring Hoeberth over a period of five years were deemed by the esteemed Wikipedia scholars as not “reliable sources.” (In sum: "Brawndo has what plants crave.")

SEE: Wikipedia: Articles for deletion/Sigurd Hoeberth

ALSO: A website called Fandom that decided Hoeberth’s story was “a hoax”


FULL TEXT (Article 1 of 9): Berlin, May 27—A revolt of the down-trodden male against the domineering female is, on the way in Vienna where the “Rights for Men” League has been founded to start the battle.

The League, which held its first big mass meeting recently, is composed so far only of bachelors, divorced husbands, and unmarried fathers. The still married husbands, the members insist, would like to join, but their wives won’t let them, which in itself is cited as proof for the need of such an organisation.

The mass meeting was held under the slogan of “equal rights for men.”

Sigurd Hoeberth, the president of the League, denied emphatically that the aggressive males were women haters. All the League wanted, he said, was that the preferences and privileges which the women now receive from society, from the State, and especially from the courts, should stop.

“We love and honour the ladies,” Hoeberth said, “but we want to leave to our descendants once more real mothers and wives, and to prevent their being killed off by the alleged emancipation of the woman.”

Numerous speakers denounced the “degenerate literary cafe clique” for having placed woman on such a high pedestal “that she has come to consider it as her right not only to claim but also to abuse her privileges arid her freedom.”

“The feminist, hysterical and degenerate cafe scribblers have helped cunning woman to forge intolerable chains for men,” explained one of the speakers, Wollner.

“The man is roped before the family coach, and on the driving seat sits the ‘gracious lady,’ and if he doesn’t pull till he drops, she swings the whip of legal paragraphs over him.”

A large part of the prison inmates, Wollner said, have been put there by the accusations of their own wives. A good number of the initiates of insane asylums, he charged, have been put there by their wives because they were in the way.

“The reason for all this,” Wollner said, “is that the authorities believe the women everything and the man nothing, although they should know that the he is a specific attribute of the feminine sex.”

The principal complaint of the league members was against the alimony claims of divorced wives and the claims of support of unmarried mothers.

The secretary of the League, Hofeneder, pictured the claims for alimony and support as a cruel persecution of the men, inspired not only by greed but often also by revenge and plain “cussedness.”

Under the present Austrian law, Hofeneder said, the unmarried mother has practically her choice to whom she wants to pick as the father of her child. And he deplored that a Vienna court had rejected the blood test for paternity on the ground that this test was not yet sufficiently developed.

“The unmarried father is helpless against the cunning and the revenge of the unmarried mother,” Hofeneder said. “Our antiquated laws speak only of the duties of the unmarried fathers, not of their rights.

[“Men Form Defence League In Vienna.” The Daily Gleaner (Kingston, Jamaica), Jun. 10, 1926, p. 19; The spelling in the original, "Hoeberth," is erroneous.]


FULL TEXT (Article 2 of 9): Vienna, Feb. 17.—With the slogan "We men must hang together." The Vienna League for the Rights of Men, organized for protection against the encroachment of women have discussed the rescue of Charlie Chaplin at a sympathy meeting.

Herr Knobloch [error in orig./ correct: Kornblueh (Leopold Kornblüh)], a member of the executive committee of the league, declared:

"This is another case where a woman's treachery and woman's falsity are trying to ruin a good man."

He characterized the Chaplin-Gray marriage as a "speculation marriage entered into by American gold diggers."

It was resolved to send Chaplin their sympathy.

A resolution was also passed against Mussolini’s attempt to suppress bachelors* which it was charged again violates the rights of men in favor of women.

[“Anti-Woman Club Formed,” Syndicated (Universal Service), San Antonio Light (Tx.), Feb. 17, 1927, p. 4-A]

* This refers to what is known as “The Battle for Births.” – The Battle for Births began in 1927: Mussolini introduced a number of measures to encourage reproduction, with an objective of increasing the population from 40 million to 60 million by 1950. Loans were offered to married couples, with part of the loan cancelled for each new child, and any married man who had more than six children was made exempt from taxation. Mussolini, who had developed a cult of personality, argued that the Italian people had a duty to their leader (“Il Duce”) to produce as many children as possible. In correspondence with these incentives, laws were brought in to penalize any citizens who proved to be less productive. Bachelors were taxed increasingly, and by the late 1930s, the civil service began recruiting and promoting only those who were fertile and married. [Wikipedia]


NOTE: The “men only” offshoot of Bund für Männerrechte, Vienna, led by Leopold Kornblueh, is discussed here.

FULL TEXT (Article 3 of 9): VIENNA, May 25.—Charlie Chaplin will deliver a lecture on the tyranny of women in America in Vienna this summer.

This announcement made by Herr Kornblueh at the recent congress of the Vienna league of men called “Justitia” was greeted with tremendous applause.

“Charlie Chaplin is one of our most ardent supporters abroad” Herr Kornblueh declared, “and since his divorce, he has written to us assuring our organization of his sympathy and emphasizing the necessity of a world wide movement for the emancipation of the oppressed husbands.

“The tyranny of modern women, who demand all rights and refuse all duties, who are marrying men only to lead a careless, workless and childless life, or to obtain a divorce and a lifelong alimony, this shameful tyranny is the underlying cause of all evils.

“Look at the insane asylum Steinhof in Vienna. Fifty percent of the unfortunate inmates were brought to this place because of their marriage.’’

The congress passed a resolution demanding the abolishment of alimonies find other unequal pacts between the two sexes, and protesting against the favoritism of the authorities in favor of women, especially the siding of the police with the wives whenever a domestic quarrel develops.

The Justitia is the first organization in the world fighting for the “emancipation of men,” and makes its appeal to all those “in revolt against the oppression of the female sex.” Only the freedom of men can prevent the white race from decline and ruin, declares one of the organizations proclamations.

“The only trouble is,” confessed Kornblueh, “there are few courageous men. Husbands are too cowardly, while bachelors are perhaps too willing to join our organization.”

[“Chaplin, Siding With Fellows, Will Assail Tyranny of Women - American Comedian and Victim of ‘Oppression of Female Sex’ Joins Brothers of ‘Justitia’ in Fight For ‘Emancipation of Men’,” The Charleston Gazette (W. Va.), May 27, 1928, p. 6]


FULL TEXT (Article 4 of 9): Vienna, Austria. – Dr. Sigurd Hoeberth has courage. He has called a conference of all men of the world for Sept. 25 to discuss ways and means of obtaining equal rights for men. Dr. Hoeberth is also an optimist, for he thinks at least 2,000 men will dare to show up at such a conference, in Hofburg Hall in Emperor Franz Joseph palace. It is large and beautiful hall, with the distinct; advantage of having many exits. In case women storm the palace the men would have a chance to away and establish alibis.

For a time Dr. Hoeberth disappeared from Mozart strasse. It thought by those who did not know him he had given up the right for man’s rights, just the contrary. Undaunted he is waging the battle in the heart of Vienna's financial district. His new office is on the main floor of one of Vienna's many defunct banks. Where once the Viennese went long on their own securities, to their sorrow, and sold French francs short, also to their sorrow, Dr. Hoeberth is now barricaded, behind a show window, blazing with his posters. Within his office he is further protected by a high counter. It is perhaps superfluous to add his office has an exit on the back street.

The show window of the World League for Men's Rights attracts considerable attention. The posters are gay, and contain a sufficient outline of what Dr. Hoeberth is boosting. Pretty stenographers, on the way to and from lunch, occupy the sidewalk next to the window, and picket Dr. Hoeberth's shop. They open their umbrellas, and hold them at an angle to prevent the men from reading. Sometimes the police are compelled to keep the crowd moving. Now and then a man pulls his hat down, and turns up his collar, before running the gauntlet to get inside and ask for literature on the subject of men's rights. The market women grunt with disdain when they pass.

Surprisingly, Dr. Hoeberth is finding a number of Viennese women who agree with him.  They say unscrupulous women have scared men so it is hard for a really modest and refined woman to catch a husband. "If the present laws are maintained," they relate, "it will be necessary to use bear traps." Moved by pity, or some other emotion, even Mrs. Ross, wife of Prof. Edward Alsworth Ross of the University of Wisconsin, said Dr. Hoeberth has some good ideas.

Dr. Hoeberth has 10 points which he is demanding for men before he will accept an armistice. They are:

1. Divorced women, able to earn their own living, or those who have an income of their own, are not entitled to alimony,

2. Alimony claims are valid only for marriages which last three years. The amount of alimony is to be based on the duration of the marriage.

3. After the termination of a marriage the woman, loses the right to use the name of the husband.

4. The legal limit in Austria for contesting the legitimate birth of a child, now three months, is to be abolished. The procedure shall be the same as in contested paternity.

5. Blood tests and anthropological examination have to be considered as a judicial and legal method for determining paternity.

6. Mothers are to be required to support illegitimate children according to their means.

7. The father of an illegitimate child shall not only have obligations towards the child, but also is entitled to rights as to the child.

8. Illegitimate children are required to support aged and invalid parents.

9. The existence minimum cannot be derogated because of failure to pay alimony or contribute to support. The law by which a man can be thrown into prison for failure to pay alimony must be repealed.

10. "Further," says Dr. Hoeberth, "we are fighting all the monstrosities which have come from the emancipation of woman."

The league cites the case of Johann Apfelmuss, but of course this is not the right name of this poor man. Mr. Apfelmuss was in the hospital about to undergo an operation when his wife asked the judge for a divorce. The date hearing was set on the very day when Mr. Aphelmuss was to be operated upon. Mr. Apfelmus asked for a postponement but his request passed unnoticed. Mrs. Apfelmuss received an uncontested decree. Her husband became legally culpable.

Contrary to what the doctors predicted, Mr. Apfelmuss recovered, after a long siege, and two years later got a job at the Vienna average, $30 per month. Five dollars of this was subtracted at the source for sickness insurance, pension fund and the usual social undertakings for which the Viennese worker must contribute whether he wishes or not. For his room and breakfast Mr. Apfelmuss paid $9. Then as Mr. Apfelmuss did not contest the divorce the judge ordered him to pay his wife $13 per month. This left Mr. Apfelmuss with the large sum of almost $4. The funny part of this story is that the former Mrs. Apfelmuss is a post office girl, and receives the union wage scale.

Dr. Hoeberth knows a number of these stories and when the league meets Sept. 25 in the Hofburg hall, he will relate all the harrowing details. That is, he will if the stenographer and market women have not climbed over the barricade into his office before that time.

[A. R. Drucker, “Equal Rights For Mere Man League’s Aim - World Convention Plans to Curtail Alleged Women's Advantages Austrian Takes Lead Thinks 2,000 Men Will Show Up to Protest Their Wrongs,” Syracuse Herald (N.Y.), Jun. 23, 1929, Sec. 3, p. 4]

FULL TEXT (Article 5 of 9): Vienna, Austria. — “Aequitas.” By this slogan a number of Viennese men hope to start a movement by which man, mere man, can cope with woman. Of course the battle is lost before started, and these poor misguided males might better should the white flag, and yield while the yielding is good. The chances are all against them. A conservative bettor would not even risk Austrian inflated currency of the period when ten thousand kronen made one dollar. But their feeble attempts are worth nothing even if the only result achieved is to dissuade other men from making the same futile endeavors.

Herr Hoeberth, Viennese lawyer had something to do with domestic relations cases in Austria. The tragedy of wronged husbands and exploited innocent bachelors worked on his feelings that after due meditation he decided to take action. He formed the beginnings of the world league for men’s rights the “Aequitas.” In the otherwise harmonious street named Mozart Gasse he opened an office on the round floor back of a court.

~ Nothing Feminine Allowed ~ 

Except a coldly cynical janitress nothing female was allowed in the office, beyond now and then a pretty steno. A statute of justice holding sword and scales does not count, being made of plaster, and not able to talk back. No fire and a generally absence-of-female look pervaded the room. The curtains hung awry, and the chairs were all placed wrong enough to delight any care-free bachelor. By keeping your over coat on, and swinging your hands now and then you could keep from freezing.

But Herr Hoeberth warmed up to his subject. “We demand equal rights,” he said. “The shameful condition as regards marriage and family rights has in many countries become a public scandal and disgrace. The cause is to be found in antiquated laws, and in the way justice administered so as to be downright inimical to males. For two years our organization has been fighting to change this, and often we have been slandered. Our intention is not to attack marriage nor to lessen rights for women. Our aim is to guide the lawmakers so as to place family life on a sound and just basis. We wish to have laws adjusted to modern conditions, with equal duties and also equal rights for both sexes.

~ Laws Out of Date Now ~

“One hundred years ago, when our present laws were enacted, it will probably be necessary to protect women, as they were shut out of most economic pursuits, and had no political rights. In those days the woman remained home until married. She occupied herself with her parent’s household, and brought with her, when married, a moral consciousness and a sense of the value of marriage. The old-fashioned woman rarely demanded divorce. and usually when she did so, she had good and sufficient reasons. And as she could not very well go into business she was justified in demanding and receiving alimony.

“Now all this is changed. The “woman of today enjoys all the political and economic rights of man. Every occupation is open to her. Indeed in many cases she can advance more rapidly than a man. Under these conditions what does marriage mean for a woman who has not a moral consciousness? To her marriage is nothing more than a nose bag. And according to our laws a husband is just an animal required to keep the nose bag full. And if a man is not ready to go over the top in order to keep his nose bag full enough to satisfy the speculative ambitions of his wife, then prison stares him in the face.

~ Just a Nose Bag Filler~

“And how do the instruments of justice act? A smirking smile, a well cut dress, a few crocodile tears, and the nose bag filler is lost. A woman cannot lose in court. We have collected data showing in detail many cases where justice has been flouted. Under such conditions it is suicide for a man to marry. And this explains the falling off in marriage, and the many liaisons. What can one expect? But even in the liaisons man is the victim. The father of the illegitimate child is always the one who can fill the nose bag to the fullest, and satisfy the woman’s ambitions. Our laws require that there be a father. It is left to the unscrupulous woman to choose one. This practice has ruined the lives of many innocent men. It is high time we got together and insisted upon equal rights.”

“Right, you are.” we said to Herr Hoeberth. but not very enthusiastically. We had a hunch. Later we went back to the harmonious office in Mozart Gasse. Herr Hoeberth had moved. “Where?” we asked the cynical janitress.

“Don’t know.”

“And his mail. Isn’t it forwarded?

“He doesn’t get any mail.”

But we think Herr Hoeberth is still fighting against fate. He received a number of inquiries, and requests to be admitted to the organization. Also the judges finally admitted his paternity blood test. It is possible at least, so it is claimed, to tell who was not the father.

[“Equality Is Asked By Austrian Male - “Aequitas,” Viennese Society Champions Husbands and Bachelors,” (from Chicago Daily News), The Charleston Daily Mail (W. Va.), May 3, 1929, p. 17]

CLICK article image to enlarge


FULL TEXT (Article 6 of 9): Vienna, Aug. 14.— Two leagues are functioning in Vienna today to “obtain equal rights for oppressed males,” but one of them is not striving so valiantly as it used to. The founder fell in love and decided to allow women themselves to join.

These two organizations are “Aequitas,” the original organization, which has invited “honest” women to participate in its world conference here next month, and “Justitia,” which is against all women.

When Herr Von Hoeberth, a divorced man of Vienna, formed the original league for the rights of men. He was outspoken in his criticism of laws and usages which gave men and especially married or divorced men “the worst of it.” He had little use for women and feminine prerogatives and did not hesitate to say so. But when he fell in love everything was changed.

~ Founder Is Firm ~

Herr Kornblueh one of the founders of the original league, who remained firm in his anti-woman attitude, declared in an address to his colleagues:

“Tread softly, my dear comrades, upon this floor because you are treading on one of my dreams. Herr Von Hoeberth, our president, who was known as an honorable divorced man, became entangled in a love affair, is seen in public places with a young woman, whom foolish youth would call a charming one, and has recently opened the doors of our league to women. This, I regard, as a desecration of our sublime ideals.”

This was the first serious discord among the fighters for the “emancipation of men.” It led to the secession of one faction from the original league and the creation of “Justitia.”

Herr Von Hoeberth remained president of “Aequitas” while Herr Hornblueh was chosen president of the hundred per centers of “Justitia.”

The world conference in Vienna sponsored by “Aequitas” is scheduled to open on September 25. Its program, as previously outlined by Herr Von Hoeberth calls for inauguration of an international movement for reform of marriage and divorce laws, especially laws relating to alimony. It is claimed that “unprincipled women purposely marry men with the idea of obtaining divorces and alimony later on.”

“Justitia” is opposed to the present movement to bestow still further political liberties upon women, who, it is claimed, are “forgetting their natural duties.”

[Alfred Tyrnauer, “Oppressed Males To Have Their Inning - Two Leagues Functioning In Vienna To Obtain Equal Rights For Oppressed Males Allowing Women To Join League Becomes Controversial Point With Founders,” syndicated (INS), New Castle News, Pa,), Aug. 14, 1929, p. 15]


~ • ~ • ~ Link: A discussion of this organization in relation to activities in the United States, 1929

~ • ~ • ~ Link: A woman's view of this organization, 1929

~ • ~ • ~ Link: Interest in this organization in France, 1930



FULL TEXT (Article 7 of 9): Vienna. – Equitas, the world league for the rights of men, an organization which had its headquarters here and a membership made up of Europeans and Americans, has disappeared. Whether it has gone to the ground before the victorious advance of all conquering woman or merely as part of the world economic depression is not clear. At all events, it has given up its offices.

The two handsome plateglass windows, which once displayed a patchwork of such newspaper clippings as “Singer Shoots Her Husband,” “First Feminine Broker Revealed as Swindler,” “Orgies of 18-Year-Old Girl,” “Husband Poisoners of Nagrev,” and “Film Star’s Wife Wants Million Alimony,” are now filled with the exhibits of a shoe store, and a women’s shoe store at that.

A year ago Sigurd Hoeberth, president of the world league, sent hundreds of invitations to college professors, bankers and journalists of the United States to attend the world congress at which the league’s objectives were to be discussed. So few recipients took the initiative seriously, however, that the congress was postponed.

From then on the league’s interests and activities steadily declined until practically the only source of funds was its feminine members. Of these the league had, according to a statement of the president, 500, and he admitted in confidence that they were the best contributors, more especially mothers with marriageable sons.

[“World League for Rights of Men Dies; Women’s Shoe Store in Headquarters,” syndicated, The Tipton Daily Tribune (In.), Oct. 7, 1930, p. 1]


EXCERPT (Article 8 of 9; from article similar to the previous one): With the League has gone its weekly journal, “Self-Defense,” that contained such interesting features as a serial entitles “Satan’s Daughter,” and a sort of market report on the state of men’s rights in various parts of the world, but it perished apparently for want of department store advertising, leaving to women the last word as usual.

[“League for Men’s Rights Abandoned – ‘Equitas’ Had Headquarters in Vienna – Europeans and Americans Among Members,” The Gazette (Montreal), Oct. 6, 1930, p. 13]


FULL TEXT (Article 9 of 9): Rarely does a mother consider a son’s choice of a wife worthy of the distinction conferred upon her.

Equitas, the world league for the rights of men, with headquarters in Vienna, was made up largely of women members, a majority of them mothers of marriageable sons. The purpose of Equitas was to defend men against the encroachment of women, whom it charged with being in league to pre-empt all world power and dominion.

Equitas’ offices bristled with such potent warnings as “Singer Shoots Her Husband, “Husband Poisoners of Nagyrev,” “Orgies of an 18-year-Old Girl.” A weekly journal, “Self Defense,” kept members and public informed on status of men’s rights in various parts of the world. Now Equitas has folded to make way for a woman’s shoe store in the quarters it occupied.

Mothers find their sons do not share their apprehension concerning the dangers besetting the path of an eligible young man. Equitas could furnish its members no recipe for convincing a young man in love that the object of his affection is a designing creature plotting to reduce him to a state of dependence or even slavery. Unlikely as it seems, the time may come when men will be compelled to band together in defense of their rights, as women were forced to unite in a concerted drive against man domination, and Equitas may rise again.

[“Mothers’ Club to Save Sons Closes Doors,” syndicated (Newspaper Alliance), The Milwaukee Journal (Wi.), Oct. 10, 1930, p. 10]


These English language reports were incorrect in assuming that closing of the offices of Aequitas and Justitia meant that the organizations had disbanded. Justitia remained active until 1937. Aequitas remained active until Hoeberth's death in 1938. Soon after the founder died the Nazi Anschluss Commissioner shut down the organization.


NOTE on naming error in English language sources:

English language sources never, insofar as currently available sources reveal, gave the correct name of Der Bund für Männerrechte. By mistake they replaced the correct name with Liga für Menschenrechte, another, unrelated Viennese organization.

Coincidentally in 1926 another organization with an almost identical name was founded in Austria, Österreichische Liga für Menschenrechte. This Austrian organization, founded by  Rudolf Goldscheid (1870-1931) was associated with Fédération internationale des droits de l'Homme of ligues. Its mission was the promotion of human rights in general, not on problems of the relations between the sexes. There is no connection between Goldsheid and Hoeberth’s organizations despite the similarity of name, location and date of origin.



The “Early Men’s Rights Activism” post gives links to other articles on 1910s-1930s men’s rights activism in several countries. ◄•◄

SEE ALSO: Early Men's Rights Activists: 1926-1960




The most complete source on Hoeberth (Sigurd Höberth von Schwarzthal) and his career, an Austrian Master's thesis from University of Vienna, 2009:

DIPLOMARBEIT Titel der Diplomarbeit Wollen Sie ein Mann sein oder ein Weiberknecht? Zur Männerrechtsbewegung in Wien der Zwischenkriegszeit Verfasserin Kerstin Christin WRUSSNIG angestrebter akademischer Grad Magistra der Philosophie (Mag. phil) Wien, 2009 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: 301/300 Studienrichtung lt. Studienblatt: Betreuerin / Betreuer: Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Duchkowitsch

6.1 DER DEUTSCHE MÄNNERBUND: PSEUDOWISSENSCHAFTLICHE BEGRIFF- UND THEORIEBILDUNG BEI SCHURTZ UND BLÜHER EXKURS: DER DEUTSCHE BUND ZUR BEKÄMPFUNG DER FRAUENEMANZIPATION Das Sozialprofil der AntifeminstInnen Das Wirken der AntifeministInnen III DIE MÄNNERRECHTLER IN ÖSTERREICH ANTIFEMINISMUS IN ÖSTERREICH AM ZENIT DER MISOGYNIE: OTTO WEININGERS GESCHLECHT UND CHARAKTER Weiningers pseudowissenschaftliche Thesen und seine Ansicht über die Emanzipationsbestrebungen DISKURSANALYSE DER MÄNNERRECHTLER -ORGANISATIONEN WIENS, IHRER PRESSE SOWIE IHRER POLITISCHEN BEDEUTUNG DISKURSANALYSE: THEORETISCHE GRUNDLAGEN Modell der Diskursanalyse JOSEF ERNST VOLLEKS KAMPF GEGEN DIE FRAUENRECHTLERINNEN Der Mannesrechtler Erstausgabe Der Mannesrechtler zweite und letzte Ausgabe Mai SIGURD HÖBERTH VON SCHWARZTHAL UND DER BUND FÜR MÄNNERRECHTE Rezeption der Männerrechtler und deren Ziele in der Neuen Freien Presse Rezeption der Männerrechtler und deren Ziele in der Zeitschrift Die Frau Das Sozialprofil der Männerrechtler Die Spaltung der Männerrechtler DER VEREIN JUSTITIA UND SEINE ZEITSCHRIFT MÄNNERECHTLER-ZEITUNG SIGURD HÖBERTHS ZEITSCHRIFTEN NOTWEHR UND MÄNNER-ZEITUNG Die Erstausgabe der Notwehr im März Die Notwehr, zweite und letzte Ausgabe im September Die Erstausgabe der Männer-Zeitung, Februar Die Männer-Zeitung, März-April Die Männer-Zeitung, Mai Die Männer-Zeitung, Juni-Juli Die Männer-Zeitung, Jänner-Februar Die Männer-Zeitung, letzte Ausgabe im Sommer DAS ENDE DER MÄNNERRECHTLER BEANTWORTUNG DER FORSCHUNGSFRAGEN


Hoeberth (Höberth) Chronology

1880 – Sigurd Höberth von Schwarzthal (born 1880, Odessa; died August 1938)
1925 – „Der Mannesrechtler. Die einzige nicht-erotische anti-feministische Zeitschrift gegen den Zeitschwindel. – Für Denkende.“; Wien, 1925.
Mar. 26, 1926 – Der Bund für Männerrechte, founded in Vienna in March 1926 by
Sigurd Höberth von Schwarzthal (born 1880, Odessa; died August 1938) and Leopold Kornblüh; issued a ten-point “covenant.”
1926 – „Der Mannesrechtler. Organ für Männerrechte“; Wien, 1926
Sep. 25, 1926 – International conference (never held). Hofburg Hall, Vienna.
Dec. 1926 – The cause was Hoebert’s founding in December 1926 of Themisverband (a woman’a auxilliary).
Jan. 1927 – The organization broke into two factions in January 1927. Hoeberth forms Aequitas Weltbund für Männerrechte, which would be open to both sexes.
Jan. 1927 – Kornblüh forms Justitia Verein für Männer und Familienrecht.
1929 – Publication of periodical, „Männerrechtler-Zeitung“, Wien, 1929.
May 1930 – First issue of periodical, Notwehr (Self Defense) published.
Sep. 1930 – Second and last issue of periodical, Notwehr (Self Defense) published.
1930 – Aequitas storefront office closes.
Feb. 1933 – First issue of periodical Männer-Zeitung, ed. by Hoeberth; 6 issues published (#2, Mar.-Apr. 1933; #3, Mai 1933; #4, Juni-Jul. 1933; #5, Jan.-Feb. 1934; #6, Sommer 1935).
1937 – Justitia remained active until 1937.
1938 – Aequitas remained active until Hoeberth's death in 1938. Soon after the founder died the Nazi Anschluss Commissioner shut down the organization.
Aug. 1938 – Sigurd Hoeberth dies.
[Source: thesis:  Kerstin Christin WRUSSNIG, „Wollen Sie ein Mann sein oder ein Weiberknecht?“ Zur Männerrechtsbewegung in Wien der Zwischenkriegszeit Verfasserin, 2009]


The first men’s rights organizations and political parties in Austria were founded in the 1920s. It was eight decades before similar organizations were established.

Männerpartei (“Men's Party) was founded February 4, 2008 by Oliver Peter Hoffmann and has been active in the public since 2009. The first focus of political work was on “equal rights for fathers.” Panel discussions, demonstrations and media work were conducted by the men's party on this topic.

In the Vienna elections in 2010, the party ran as part of the Direct Democracy Platform, an electoral alliance of five groups. At the National Council elections in Austria in 2013, the men's party ran in the state of Vorarlberg. She received 488 votes, which corresponded to 0.28% of valid votes in Vorarlberg and 0.01% in Austria. For the first time in the state election (Vorarlberg, 2014), Männerpartei scored 0.39% of the vote and no mandate. In the municipal elections in Vienna in 2015, the party ran in the district of Donaustadt and reached 0.17% (total: 0.02%). In Vorarlberg the party took part in the National Council elections in 2017, but missed its entry into the National Council. [Wikipedia]


In 2017, Hoffman resigned from Männerpartei and founded Liberale Männer Zur politischen Vertretung von Männerinteressen, an Austrian non-profit association, promoting an agenda of post-feminism – exposing feminist ideologies’ failings and its social destructiveness.


For more revelations of this suppressed history, see The Alimony Racket: Checklist of Posts



  1. This is an absolutely fascinating and informative site. I'm so glad I found it.

  2. I had no idea men were feeling this inequality as early as this, and their complaints are essentially the same a men today 85 or more years later!! Thanks for this site! very thought provoking

    1. "The posters are gay, and contain a sufficient outline of what Dr. Hoeberth is boosting."

      Gotta love the phrasing of decades past.

  3. How come I can't read about this guy on Wikipedia?

    1. The short answer: There is not a single MRA in the English speaking world who has decided to put this information on Wikipedia. I have not done it myself for two reasons, 1) It would violate Wikipedia rules for me to post and then link to myself, 2) As long as the men's rights movement continues to be so disorganized and its members remain oblivious to the value of learning the history of their own movement then none will take the ball (this post) and run with it. If I do all this work myself then it will have no effect. If people are not interested and industrious I cannot help by acting solo.

    2. St. Estephe,

      I'm not sure I understand your first reason, since I assume you have the newspaper source references to cite. You wouldn't have to link to yourself; just cite the sources and link where the sources are available for viewing online. I haven't been able to find any references to Hoeberth in the Google News archives though.

      I was drawn to this subject myself by reading 1895 essays criticizing women's suffrage by a German's philosopher. This is "The Sexes Compared" and "The Vital Question of the Family", by Eduard von Hartmann. The book containing these essays is found here:

      He makes the standard essentialist argument in favor of differences between men and women, saying they're different than men and have a separate sphere in society. People today would no doubt find some of the arguments misogynist; he repeats the common double standard believed at the time that women should be virgins when married but not men. Some might find other of his arguments anti-Catholic. But what's interesting is one of his arguments in particular -- he basically claims that husbands voted however their wives wanted them to anyway because women controlled the domestic sphere and had power in the household:

      "... This dominion is so great that, among all peoples, the male sex is subjected to the rule of the female, despite appearances to the contrary. The relationship which it establishes, usually survives the period of cohabitation, and impresses its seal upon the whole of social life. As long as the mysterious power of the female -- produced by the difference of the sexes -- remains unimpaired, we must, by way of compensation, uphold the legal superiority of man, so that the balance in some measure might be readjusted. If we listened to the woman emancipationists, and deprived men of all their privileges in State and society in law and morality we should inaugurate a period of female rule unparalleled in history, and known only in legend. In this way the outcry for abstract equality defeats its own ends, since it altogether ignores the most important facts, which do not admit of legal treatment ..."

      "... Every woman would have command of two, and not of one vote only. The husband would, in fact, be compelled to sacrifice his political convictions for domestic peace and happiness."

      Now Hartmann's wife also did writing, and defended her husbands beliefs. That just reflects the fact that many women of the era were anti-feminist.

      But the reason this caught my interest was it made me realize that the perception of "henpecking" and women domineering families is older than I thought. You of course see this subject come up again in films like "Rebel without a Cause" and in that famous Daffy Duck cartoon "The Henpecked Duck." But I didn't realize that it was a subject of discussion back in the 19th century.

  4. [William M., Marston, “Why Men Are Organizing To Fight Female Dominance,” syndicated (International Feature Service), syndicated (International Feature Service), Hamilton Evening Journal (Oh.), Oct. 19, 1929, Feature Section, p. 1]

    Newspaperarchive,com link

  5. The correct name is Der Bund für Männerrechte, founded in Vienna in ...

  6. The periodicals: Extant copies (?): Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

    1926 – „Der Mannesrechtler. Organ für Männerrechte“; Wien, 1926
    1929 – Publication of periodical, „Männerrechtler-Zeitung“, Wien, 1929.
    May 1930 – First issue of periodical, Notwehr (Self Defense) published.
    Sep. 1930 – Second and last issue of periodical, Notwehr (Self Defense) published.
    Feb. 1933 – First issue of periodical Männer-Zeitung, ed. by Hoeberth; 6 issues published (#2, Mar.-Apr. 1933; #3, Mai 1933; #4, Juni-Jul. 1933; #5, Jan.-Feb. 1934; #6, Sommer 1935).